The Phlegraean volcanic fields just west of Naples, Italy, are among the top eight emitters of volcanic carbon dioxide in the world. Since 2005, the Solfatara crater — one of many circular depressions in the landscape left by a long history of eruptions –has been emitting increased volumes of gas. Today it emits 4,000-5,000 tons of carbon dioxide each day, equivalent to the emissions from burning ~500,000 gallons of gasoline. Researchers estimate that as much as 20%–40% of the current carbon dioxide emissions are from the dissolution of calcite in the rocks, while 60%–80% is from underground magma.

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